The Council of European Union is its main decision-making body. The Council of European Union is sometimes called European Council - in the case of meeting of the leaders of the Member States or their governments, or Council of Ministers when the ministers of the respective field meet. The Council of Ministers of the Employment and Social Policy consists of the ministers or the member states that are responsible for the policies of employment and social policy as well as for the issues of gender equality (Latvia is represented by the Minister of Welfare). The meetings of the Council of Ministers of Employment and Social Policy usually are held four times per year (twice during each presidency).

The full name of this Council of Ministers is the Council of Ministers of Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs of the European Union, but the ministers responsible for health and consumer affairs meet separately (usually one day before or after the meeting of the ministers of employment and social policy).